Arimura, T., Ogino, T., Yoshiura, T., Toi, Y., Kawabata, M., Chuman, I., et al. (2016). Effect of film dressings on acute radiation dermatitis as a result of proton therapy. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. 95, 472-476. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2015.10.053 Cotton balls are often used to clean, disinfect and prepare wound sites before applying bandages or bandages. They can also be used as a sterile method of applying drugs or ointments to a wound to ensure it remains clean and free of bacteria. Wound care items are designed to protect patients and help them heal as quickly as possible after suffering an injury or surgery. Accessible and sufficient quantities of all supplies needed for a variety of wound types and scenarios, from wound gauze to bandages, undoubtedly prepare medical professionals for successful wound treatment.
Hydrocolloid fibers (hydrofibers) are commonly used on wounds where alginates have traditionally been used Nuutila, K., Singh, M., Kruse, C., Philip, J., Caterson, E. J. and Eriksson, E. (2016). Titanium wound chambers for wound healing research. Wound repair rain. 24, 1097-1102. doi: 10.1111/wrr.12472 The last type of modern dressings are bioactive dressings and are made from biomaterials that play an important role in the healing process. These dressings are known for their biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-toxic nature and usually come from natural tissues or artificial sources  such as collagen , hyaluronic acid , chitosan , alginate and elastin. The polymers of these materials are used alone or in combination, depending on the type and type of wound.
Biological dressings are sometimes combined with growth factors and antimicrobials to improve the healing process. Snyder, B. J., & Waldman, B. J. (2009). Prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism and wound healing in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery. Adv. Hautwound Care 22, 311-315. doi: 10.1097/01.ASW.0000305485.98734.1f Murakami, K., Aoki, H., Nakamura, S., Nakamura, S., Takikawa, M., Hanzawa, M., et al. (2010). Hydrogel mixtures of chitin/chitosan, fucoidan and alginate as healing dressings.
Biomaterials 31, 83-90. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.09.031 Foot wound complicated by heterotopic calcification adapted to dressing with Harper, D., Young, A., and McNaught, C.-E. hydrofibers. (2014). The Physiology of Wound Healing. Surgery 32, 445-450. doi: 10.1016/j.mpsur.2014.06.010 Wilhelm, K. P., Wilhelm, D., and Bielfeldt, S. (2017). Wound healing models: Focus on clinical trials.
Skin Res. Technol. 23, 3-12. doi: 10.1111/srt.12317 Park, G. B. (1978). Covers from burns – an examination. Biomater. Medieval equipment Artif. Organs 6, 1-35.
doi: 10.3109/10731197809118690 It should be emphasized that one of the high-tech areas of medical textiles is the application of dressing materials, which include bandages and printed clothing to improve the quality of life. In fact, dressing and dressing techniques come from the old practice, which facilitates the further development of improving the comfort and performance characteristics of value-added products. After wound evaluation, appropriate dressings should be selected based on size, depth, exudate, stage, infection status, age of the patient and general condition. There is no predetermined principle for choosing the appropriate dressing, but there are some important factors to consider before choosing the dressing, such as price, availability, experience of the medical team, and the preference of the patient and medical team. DFU is defined as foot pain, foot ulcer, and foot burning caused by neuropathy and vascular disease of the lower extremities. The pathogenesis of UFD is very complicated and its clinical manifestations are heterogeneous (Acosta et al., 2008; Blakytny and Jude, 2009). Therefore, the treatment strategy for UPD is a long-term multidisciplinary combination therapy process. The use of bandages is an integral part of long-term treatment options. In the diabetic state, several factors cause stagnation at one or more stages of the normal healing process. Microvascular disease leads to a decrease in the supply of oxygen and blood to the wound bed, which delays healing and increases the risk of infection (Rathur & Boulton, 2005; Snyder and Waldman, 2009).
Bioactive dressings are a good choice for repairing diabetic wounds. As shown in Figure 1, researchers have produced a heat-sensitive injectable dressing based on heat-sensitive polysaccharide (fluorinated ethylene propylene) that can continuously release exosomes to promote wound site angiogenesis and accelerate the healing process (Khanolkar et al., 2008; Wang et al., 2019). The silver ion foam dressing used in diabetic foot patients keeps the wound moist. Studies have shown that a better extracellular matrix environment is a crucial factor in promoting keratinocyte and fibroblast migration and collagen synthesis (Alvarez, 1988; Morton and Phillips, 2012). In addition, silver ions prevent wound infection and thus long-term stagnation in the inflammatory phase due to recurrent infections (Barnea et al., 2010). Figure 1. The bioactive dressing promoted angiogenesis in UPF. (A) Synthesis and biological function of the fluoroethylene propylene hydrogel (FEP) scaffold containing exosomes. (B) Immunofluorescence images of the wound bed stained by smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) on day 7. (C) The number of new blood vessels on day 7. (D) Images of wound healing in mice of different groups.
(E) Wound closure rate in different groups during healing (**P< 0.01). Reproduced with permission from Wang et al. (2019). Franks, P. J., Moody, M., Moffatt, C. J., Hiskett, G., Gatto, P., Davies, C., et al. (2007). Randomized study with two foam dressings in the treatment of chronic venous ulceration. Wound repair rain.
15, 197–202. doi: 10.1111/j.1524-475X.2007.00205.x Bandages are arguably the most important medical textiles and are used for a variety of purposes, namely to store the bandage, support joints and prevent the development of edema, apply pressure to a limb, treat skin diseases, and protect against physical damage. The fibers and fabrics used for bandage applications depend on their intended functions. Knitted spacers, elastic fabrics, tubular knitted tubes with lycra, non-woven fabrics, etc. are very commonly used for bandage applications. In general, closed incisions should be treated with non-adherent dressings or they can be left in the postoperative air after 1 to 3 days. If they are directly under a prosthesis or other device, they may need additional protection. Skin grafts should remain covered with non-adherent dressings for several weeks after the operation, and measures should be taken to avoid shear forces along the graft site. Unlike wound treatment, printed clothing is mainly used to treat third-degree burns that affect not only the outer and inner layers of the skin, but also deeper tissues. Printed clothing is used to treat hypertrophic scars (overgrowth of scar tissue). They prevent and control the formation of hypertrophic scars by exerting back pressure on the affected area.
When burnt skin heals, it can develop into irregular scars. Printed clothing helps the skin heal by pushing healing skin down so that it becomes flat. Continuous wearing of compression garments prevents thickening, bending and nodular formations seen in hypertrophic scars. The external pressure exerted by clothing reduces the inflammatory response and the amount of blood in the scar, reduces itching and prevents collagen synthesis. In addition, compression stockings provide protection against injury. It should be noted that these clothes must be worn for several weeks or months. It has been widely accepted that an ideal printed garment should exert a pressure of 20 mmHg on the underlying fabric, although the reference print has not yet been scientifically determined. Printed garments usually contain elastic threads, and much research and development has been done worldwide to characterize and develop new printed garments3–9. Many clinical studies show that foam dressings can reduce the frequency of bedsores.
A randomised controlled trial examined the role of Mepilex Border Sacrum and Mepilex heel dressings®® in preventing stress injuries in critically ill patients prior to transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU). The results showed significant differences in pressure ulcer incidence between the two groups (≤10%). Thus, the study concluded that the application of multilayer soft silicone foam dressings reduces incidence in patients prior to transfer to the ICU (Santamaria et al., 2015). One study reported the preventive effect of a five-layer soft silicone edge dressing in patients undergoing cardiac surgery in the intensive care unit. The results showed that there are differences in the occurrence of pressure ulcers; However, the difference was not significant (Brindle and Wegelin, 2012). Chaiken et al. applied a silicone edge foam dressing to the appendix of ICU patients to determine whether the dressing reduced sacral pressure damage. Results showed that the incidence of pressure ulcers decreased from 13.6% to 1.8% after dressing application, suggesting that this type of dressing effectively reduced the incidence of sacral pressure ulcers in the intensive care unit (Chaiken, 2012). In addition, Walsh et al. applied a silicone edge foam dressing to the tibial region of patients in the intensive care unit. Results showed that the incidence of pressure ulcers in the intensive care unit decreased from 12.5% in 2009 to 7% in 2010 and the number of cases of sacral pressure ulcers decreased from 50 to 13 (Walsh et al., 2012).